Carolyne Kauser-AbbottTaste

Discover the Tradition of the 13 Desserts of Christmas in Provence

This post was previously published by Cook’n with Class in Uzès.

A buffet table laden with 13 desserts! How could the French be so smug as to think that North Americans with our turkey-centric Christmas dinners, stuffing, cranberry sauce, mashed potatoes and a variety of sides are excessive? Or so I thought when I first heard about this holiday tradition.

However, like most customs in the South of France, there is a historical and religious foundation that begins to make sense once you peel back the layers.

Walnuts in Provence @PerfProvence

Christmas celebrations are focused around the evening before December 25th when Provençal dinner tables are set with three white tablecloths for the gros souper (translation: big supper). The symbolism surrounding the table preparation is deliberate, the three layers of white fabric represent the holy trinity. The table decorations are not elaborate, but rather simply an acknowledgement of the fruits of agricultural labour each year – sprouted wheat from the Feast of Sainte Barbara, and carafes of sweet wine (vin cuit) from the fall harvest.

A typical Christmas Eve meal in Provence is meatless, on the lighter side but, not insignificant with seven fish and vegetable dishes. These plates might include omelettes, salted cod and potatoes – brandade de morue, ratatouille and a local garlic soup. The number of dishes is to represent Mary’s seven sorrows.

Christmas Traditions 13 Desserts of Provence @PerfProvence

Following midnight mass, it is time for the 13 desserts. The amount has nothing to do with a baker’s dozen, but rather is equal to the number of participants around the table at the Last Supper; Jesus and his 12 apostles. The exact make-up of les treize desserts is not prescriptive. However, the sweets generally fall into four categories: dried fruit and nuts, fresh seasonal fruit, fruit preserved in sugar syrup and a sweetened bread.

Several religious orders of monks (Augustin, Carmelites, Dominicans and Franciscans) were prevalent during the Middle Ages in Provence. “The four beggars” are represented by dried fruit (figs, raisins, apricots) and nuts (walnuts, almonds, hazelnuts).

Market nougat in Provence @perfProvence

Two kinds of nougat (black and white) are typically found in the dessert mix to symbolise both good and evil. The black nougat is made with local almonds and honey and tends to be quite hard. The white version has hazelnuts and pistachios; it is generally softer, but sticky. As a note, these delicious sweet treats can be rough on your teeth, so small bites are a good precaution.

Candied fruits may include the Calisson d’Aix (a local speciality with candied melon and almonds a little like a marzipan), fruit preserved in syrup or fruit jellies and pastes.

With the approach of December, Provencal markets are often an array of colours with bright citrus (orange, tangerines, clementines), apple and pear varieties, and of course grapes. Some of this fresh fruit would also be included on the buffet.

Christmas Citrus in Provence @PerfProvence

No dessert table would be complete without a family’s version of local sweet bread made with olive oil. The pompe à l’huile or fougasse looks a little like an oversized pretzel but has nothing to do with that salty snack. This bread has the texture of a brioche and is flavoured with anise or citrus or other spices. No Provencal native would ever cut the pompe à l’huile with a knife, and it should be torn by hand – like the breaking of the bread for the apostles.

Pompe a l'huile traditional bread in Provence @PerfProvence

So now it is well after midnight, and there is no way you could eat more dessert. No worries, the table will remain set for three days to share with guests who may come to visit during the holidays.

Please share this with friends and family.

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Carolyne Kauser-Abbott

Carolyne Kauser-Abbott

With her camera and laptop close at hand, Carolyne has traded in her business suits for the world of freelance writing and blogging. Her first airplane ride at six months of age was her introduction to the exciting world of travel.

While in Provence, Carolyne can be found hiking with friends, riding the hills around the Alpilles or tackling Mont Ventoux. Her attachment to the region resonates in Perfectly Provence this digital magazine that she launched in 2014. This website is an opportunity to explore the best of the Mediterranean lifestyle (food & wine, places to stay, expat stories, books on the region, travel tips, real estate tips and more), through our contributors' articles.

Carolyne writes a food and travel blog Ginger and Nutmeg. Carolyne’s freelance articles can be found in Global Living Magazine, Avenue Magazine and City Palate (Published Travel Articles).


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    December 15, 2018 at 6:14 am — Reply

    Very informative & interesting, Carolyne. The symbolism of the 7 dishes, 13 desserts, 3 tablecloths…
    Thank you for for your beautiful photos and well-researched articles.

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      December 15, 2018 at 7:38 am — Reply

      Hello, Kamla thank you for reading Perfectly Provence and for your lovely comment. Wishing you a wonderful Christmas season and all the very best for 2019.

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    December 15, 2018 at 10:46 am — Reply

    Very informative with your beautiful photography, takes me back to the Christmas we shared with you in Chamonix. Years ago

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      December 15, 2018 at 3:20 pm — Reply

      Thanks Carda-mom!

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