InspireMargo LestzProvencal History & Traditions

Christmas Traditions the Santons of Provence

Christmas Traditions in Provence

This year, all I wanted for Christmas was santons – those little clay Provençal figurines that pop up every Christmas in the south of France. They’re part of the local Nativity scenes, and every person in the village is represented.

I began collecting santons when I lived in France. I would pick one up from time to time, but I didn’t want to get carried away and end up with an unwieldy collection. This year, however, I was suffering from Provence withdrawal. I hadn’t been there in more than a year, and it didn’t seem likely that I would be going back anytime soon. I needed a bit of the south of France, and santons seemed like the perfect solution.

The Pastorale Holiday Story

You may know the traditional Biblical Christmas story, but there is a bit more to it in Provence. The Provence Christmas story is told in a Nativity play called a pastorale. It incorporates the main details of the traditional Nativity but sets it in a nineteenth-century Provençal village.

Santons Christmas Provence Creche Scene

The word pastorale basically means “shepherd’s song” and refers to the Biblical Christmas story where the shepherds are the first to hear the good news. Early pastorales told only the Biblical narrative of the birth of Jesus, but in the mid-1800s, Antoine Maurel, a Provençal poet, added some local flavour. His pastorale was one of the first to incorporate the Provence villagers and add a bit of Provençal humour.

Continue reading here to learn about the importance of the shepherd’s song in Provençal Christmas traditions. Margo explains the characters in a typical creche scene, and these tiny clay figures called santons (little saints).

The Creche and the Santons

Christmas Traditions Santons Provence

Many santon fairs are organized throughout Provence from mid-November to prepare the family creche. The santons are small colourful clay figurines. The real Provencal santon “Santoun” (little saint) is created by hand and with love. Some santons in the Christmas crib represent the Nativity scene: Jesus, the Virgin Mary, Joseph. Others represent the village’s inhabitants going to the crèche: pétanque players, fish merchants, doctors, bakers, shepherds and others. Each santon brings a gift for the baby Jesus. The authentic crib is a representation of the Provençal village and its small world.

In some villages and churches during the holidays, these nativity scenes begin to look like real small towns with figures that include bakers, millers, shepherds and many more. This tradition is present in every department of Provence but strongest in the Bouches du Rhône. There is a museum of santons in les Baux de Provence.

Mass-market Santons

In 1797, Jean-Louis Lagnel created the first figure from a clay mould opening the door to large-scale production. The word santon was established in 1826, several years after his death. Thérèse Louis Neveu, a woman from the village of Aubagne near Marseille, improved upon the clay figurine by introducing kiln firing as a step in the process. This process significantly improved the lifecycle of the santons.

Today, although modern techniques reduce the production time for the santons, it remains an artisanal trade, and it is possible to visit artists’ (santonnièrs) studios. During the holidays in Provence, you will see these nativity scenes when you visit churches or private homes. Since 1803, the annual Foire des Santonniers is held in Marseille during the Christmas period with many artisan santonnièrs. Any time of the year, head to Aubagne to see the artisans at work in their ateliers.

Where to find Santons

Musée du Santon et des Traditions de Provence
A collection of over 2200 figurines with some that are made from walnut shells.
Place de la colonne,
84800 Fontaine de Vaucluse

Musée des Santons
“The museum houses several different collections – Neapolitan figurines from the 17th and 18th centuries, 19th-century “santons” for churches and figures by famous makers such as Carbonnel, Fouque, Jouve, Peyton Campagna, Toussaint, Thérèse Neveu, Louise Berger, Simone Jouglas etc.”
Place Louis Jou
13520 Les Baux-de-Provence

Le Village des Santons
With 3000+ santons and 19 village scenes
16 avenue Antide Boyer
13400 Aubagne

Le Village Provençal Miniature
The display has over 1000 figures and 70 Provençal scenes.
La Petite Tuilière,
26230 Grignan

Select and order your santons online from Remember Provence.
They work with a traditional santon maker with a workshop near Aix-en-Provence. His figurines are shaped and painted by hand, as tradition dictates. The most important nativity play characters in the Provencal version are available in sets of three. Several sizes are available via Remember Provence to help you prepare a wonderful Christmas creche.


Please share this with friends and family.

All rights reserved. Perfectly Provence articles and other content may not be published, broadcast, rewritten (including translations into other languages) or redistributed without written permission. For usage information, please contact us.
Syndication Information
Affiliate Information
As an Amazon Associate, this website earns from qualifying purchases. Some recipes, posts and pages may have affiliate links. If you purchase via these links, we receive a small commission that does not impact your price. Thank you in advance for supporting our work to maintain Perfectly Provence.
Previous post

How to Make a Bûche de Noël (Yule Log)

Next post

An Insider’s Guide to Provence by Keith Van Sickle

Margo Lestz

Margo is a British/American who has lived in Nice, France for the past nine years. She loves digging into the history of an area and discovering the tales behind local customs and traditions. She blogs about her discoveries on The Curious Rambler . She is also the author of two books, French Holidays & Traditions, and Curious Histories of Nice, France. Click here for Margo's books.

She describes herself as a perpetual student and is always taking some kind of course or researching a moment in history that has caught her fancy. She’s curious by nature and always wondering who, what, why, when, where, and how.

Margo shares her adventures (and her questions) with Jeff, her husband of many years. She enjoys travel, history, observing cultures and traditions – and then writing about them, of course.

No Comment

Leave a reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

The reCAPTCHA verification period has expired. Please reload the page.

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.